Below is the info ECHO sent me years ago regarding pig and poultry production. It would be helpful if ECHO personnel could identify exactly what medicines backyard pig farmers in extreme poverty should have available
Technical details on poultry production can be found in the paper by JP Bishop (see “Chickens: Backyard Production in the Human Tropics”, available from ECHO, 17430 Durrance Road, N. Ft. Myers, FL, 8pp). In particular, the following four preventive practices, given every three months, will eliminate most health problems in poultry flocks:
- Vaccination for Newcastle disease
- Deworming for roundworms and tapeworms
- Dusting under wings for irritating external parasites such as lice
- Treatment for chronic respiratory disease to increase production.
BASICS OF BACKYARD PIG PRODUCTION IN UPLAND VILLAGES OF THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE
Rick Burnette and Jamlong Pawkham
Introduction People in the uplands of the Golden Triangle of upper Southeast Asia have always raised pigs for food, income and religious ceremonies as well. When the hills and valleys of the region were less populated, there were numerous wild vegetables and greens with which to feed village pigs. Most farm families grew adequate amounts of rice, corn and sorghum with which to feed their pigs as well.
However, overpopulation has made natural feeds more difficult to find. There is also less land available on which to grow pig feed, or even food for humans. Also, more swine diseases are found in the region. However, pigs continue to be an important commodity for the farmers in the region, although raising them has become more difficult in many ways.
As a result, upland pig farmers must pay more attention to adequate housing, feeds and health care, in addition to other aspects of managing backyard pig production systems. This publication’s objective is to provide basic information needed for upland farm families to successfully raise pigs for food and profit.
Advantages and disadvantages of Backyard Pig Production The advantages of village backyard production of pigs in the Golden Triangle region include: production of natural fertilizer (manure) production of meat and extra income for the family require small areas for production pigs are adaptable to a wide variety of locally available feeds can produce large litters of offspring (compared to large livestock such as cows or buffaloes) quick to breed can be raised for market in a relatively short amount of time
However, there are problems associated with raising pigs in village backyards as well, including: pigs can be dirty and smelly some societies and individuals are prohibited from raising or eating pork prone to disease and parasites may compete with people for food or space to grow food
Housing for Backyard Pig Production Pigs raised in upland villages often have inadequate shelter. For various reasons, many pigs are allowed to run free with the risk of being injured, killed or stolen. Unrestrained
pigs increase poor sanitation in villages, contribute to the loss of personal property and damage home gardens.
Housing for backyard pig production should provide adequate comfort for pigs as well as to maximize pig production. Such housing should offer:
adequate protection from the elements (rain, sun, wind, etc.) adequate dryness for good sanitation and health appropriate areas to provide food and water adequate space for each pig effective means of removing waste
To facilitate the cleaning of pigpens as well as to enable drainage of wastes away from pens, backyard pigpens should be located on a slight slope and near an adequate source of water.
A solid floor constructed of cement is safe for pig’s feet (no dangerous cracks) and can help facilitate cleaning and prevent pigs from digging up the base of the pen. An adequate space for housing either one boar or a sow or to raise litters of small pigs is approximately 9 square meters.
Additionally, a pigpen should have good roofing that will provide animals protection from rain, direct sunlight and the cold. Adequate walls are needed to protect and confine animals, as well as to block cold winds.
In pigpens, separate troughs are needed to provide food and water. These troughs, ideally made of wood or concrete, should be watertight in order to prevent liquids from leaking on the pen floor. Troughs should also be heavy enough to prevent pigs from tipping them over.
Feeds and Feeding Successful production of pigs depends heavily upon good diets. Often the primary feed for village pigs is boiled banana stalks, the leaves of wild Elephant’s Ear (Colocasia sp.) or Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia paprifera) with perhaps a little rice bran. Although the food value of these wild feeds varies, by themselves such feeds are not adequate for productive growth and development in pigs.
Farmers must pay attention to the types of foods they are offering to their pigs. Some knowledge of the major food groups will be very helpful in enabling farmers to mix feed that will maximize village pig production. The major groups of essential nutrients for pigs (and other animals) are: Energy foods (carbohydrates and fats) Proteins Minerals Vitamins
Concerning carbohydrates, some energy food sources available in most villages in the Golden Triangle region include: rice and rice bran - good food source corn - excellent if ground or crushed sorghum - a good to excellent food source, almost as much feeding value as corn cassava root - good if dried and cooked correctly, otherwise poisonous sweet potato roots - good if not the sole carbohydrate source taro roots - good if not the sole carbohydrate source ripe fruits (papaya, banana, etc.) - satisfactory for up to 1/3 of diet cull vegetables - satisfactory; should be used to extend the diet only banana stalks - satisfactory; should be used to extend the diet only kitchen waste - satisfactory if cooked for at least 30 minutes young, green forages (wild greens, etc.) - satisfactory; a good source of vitamins for animals raised in pens
Regarding protein in the pig’s diet, some locally available protein food sources include: Rice bean, black bean, lablab bean, mung bean (protein approximately 23%) - good protein source; should be cooked (steamed, boiled or roasted) Soybean - an excellent protein source (protein 40-44%); must be cooked Pigeon pea - a good protein source (protein 20%); should be cooked Young, green forages such as tree leaves (Moringa, Paper Mulberry, Leucaena, etc.), sweet potato stems and leaves and wild greens are often a good source of protein; can contain up to 20-23% protein kitchen waste - satisfactory protein source
Some locally available mineral sources include: Table salt - include as .05% of total diet (about 1 tablespoon mixed into each batch of feed prepared in a standard 20-liter vegetable oil used by many hilltribe farmers). Mollusk Shells - Varieties found along streams can be gathered, boiled and ground into powder to be mixed into feeds at .05% (about 1-2 tablespoons per each batch of feed prepared in a standard 20-liter vegetable oil container).
It must not be forgotten that water is a major nutrient as well. However, village pigs generally do not consume enough water since almost all the water that many pigs receive is what is provided once or twice a day in the cooked feed. For the health of the pig, as well as to maximize pig production, water should be made available to pigs at all times.
The following includes some suggested balanced rations for the backyard production of pigs using locally available food sources. The suggested rations are in 12 kg portions, approximately the amount of raw ingredients that can be prepared in the 20-liter vegetable oil tins that are commonly used for cooking pig feed in the Golden Triangle region. Daily rations prepared in tins are usually halved between morning and evening
feedings. Even though fuel wood is increasingly difficult to find, many upland farmers still prefer cooking as an efficient way of preparing pig feed, particularly any ration that includes kitchen wastes and hard, less-digestible grains such as corn and dried beans.
Ration 1 - (Ingredients should be cooked together. However, greens may also be fed fresh) Ingredients % of Ration Amt./12 kg Portion Cracked or ground corn 60-75 7.2-9.0 kg dried beans 25-30 3.0-3.6 kg greens/leaves of high protein 10-15 1.2-1.8 kg plants (moringa, beans, etc.) salt .05 1 tablespoon
Ration 2 - (Ingredients should be cooked together. However, it is advisable to also include fresh greens for additional vitamins and nutrients) Ingredients % of Ration Amt./12 kg Portion banana stalks and/or papaya 75 9.0 kg fruit and/or taro root dried beans 15 1.8 kg rice bran 10 1.2 kg salt .05 1 tablespoon
Ration 3 – (Ingredients should be cooked together. However, greens may also be fed fresh) Ingredients % of Ration Amount/12 kg Portion rice bran 33 3.96 kg greens/bean vines or banana 33 3.96 kg stalks dried beans 33 3.96 kg salt .05 1 tablespoon ground mollusk shells .05 1 tablespoon
Ration 4 – (ingredients should be cooked together) Ingredients % of Ration Amount/12 kg Portion potato, sweet potato or taro root 70 8.4 kg dried beans 30 3.6 kg salt .05 1 tablespoon ground mollusk shells .05 1 tablespoon
Ration 5 – (ingredients should be cooked together) Ingredients % of Ration Amount/12 kg Portion cracked or ground corn 60-75 7.2-9.0 kg dried beans 25-40 3.0-4.8 kg salt .05 1 tablespoon ground mollusk shells .05 1 tablespoon
Ration 6 – (ingredients should be cooked together) Ingredients % of Ration Amount/12 kg Portion cracked or ground corn 50 6.0 kg rice bran 20 2.4 kg dried beans 30 3.6 kg salt .05 1 tablespoon ground mollusk shells .05 1 tablespoon
Premixing Feeds For convenience, the ingredients of some of the previously listed rations (particularly Ration 6 which is the best balanced) can be prepared and premixed proportionately in fairly large quantities (e.g. 100 kg batches). The corn should be ground finely, but cooking will not be necessary for either the ground corn or rice bran. However, to make beans digestible for pigs, it will be very important to roast, boil or steam the beans (allow the beans to dry thoroughly before grinding them finely). Additionally, if mollusk shells are included in the ration, they must be boiled to sterilize the shells, allowed to dry thoroughly and ground finely as well. As stated before, only .05% each of mollusk shells and salt will be needed in mixed feeds. All ingredients should be dried and mixed thoroughly before being stored in waterproof containers safely away from animals and pests. The premixed feeds can be fed dry to the pigs
Amounts of dry, mixed feeds or cooked rations to provide to pigs each day The following are suggested amounts of feed to provide pigs in backyard production systems: Small pigs up to 2 months of age – a 2 kg batch of dry, mixed rations will feed approximately 5-6 pigs of this age per day; one vegetable oil can full of cooked rations will feed approximately 8-10 pigs. Young pigs from 2-3 months of age – a 2 kg batch of dry, mixed rations will feed 3 pigs of this age per day; one vegetable oil can full of cooked rations will feed approximately 3-5 pigs. Young pigs from 3-4 months of age - a 3 kg batch of dry, mixed rations will feed 2 pigs of this age per day; one vegetable can full of cooked rations will feed approximately 2-3 pigs. Pigs older than 4-5 months – one 2.5 to 3 kg batch of dry, mixed rations will feed one pig of this age per day; one vegetable can full of cooked rations will feed approximately 1-2 pigs.
Pig Health Inexpensive Disease Control Apart from administering medicines, inexpensive control of pig diseases in the tropics includes: Quarantine of infected animals and premises where disease occurs Proper disposal of severely infected and exposed pigs by slaughter and burial or burning Maintaining cleanliness of pens, equipment, including regular disinfection
Common pig diseases and their treatments
Diseases Treatment Respiratory Infections Administer appropriate antibiotics (e.g., Penomycin – (pneumonia) injected according to directions). Younger pigs are at greater risk and require immediate care.
Diarrhea/Dysentery Administer appropriate antibiotic (e.g., Sulfamet – mix (scours) with water) according to directions.
Infected wounds Wounds should be treated immediately to prevent debilitating and/or life-threatening infections. One antibiotic is Negasunt that can be applied to directly to the wound according to directions.
Basic program for the prevention/treatment of common pig diseases
Diseases Treatment Cholera Begin administering Cholera vaccine (e.g., injection of PORKIRIN) when pigs are two-months old and repeat vaccinations every six months thereafter.
Internal Parasites Apply an appropriate medication such as Pisoy along with food according to directions beginning when pigs are threemonths old and repeat every six months.
Other Pig Health Concerns
Medications Method of Treatment Iron Injections Injected when baby pigs are three days old and then again at 10 days (e.g., IRONDEX) to prevent anemia
Vitamin Injections Injected when baby pigs are one week old to help them gain strength. Also injected into mother pigs just after they have given birth.
Pig Breeding and Other Basic Management Male pigs reach puberty at approximately 5 months but it is not recommended that they be used for breeding until the age of 7 months.
Females reach puberty at about 7 months. Thereafter, they will show symptoms of being in heat every 21 days, staying in heat about 3 days at a time. The signs of a female in heat include: Restlessness Swelling of the sexual organs Accepting the boar
While a female is in heat, it is best to breed the female 2 times, approximately 10-12 hours apart. The cooler hours of the day (early morning or early evening) are recommended for breeding.
The gestation period (pregnancy) lasts for 114 days (approximately 4 months) with 1-3 day variation. It is very important for farmers to keep good records of the dates that female pigs were bred in order to calculate the days that the pigs will give birth. In preparation for the birth of the piglets, and in order to reduce the risk of infection and the loss of young pigs, it is very important to clean and disinfect the pigpen (use a 1:10 bleach solution) thoroughly just prior to the female giving birth.
Farrowing (labor) may last approximately 4 hours. About one to two days before farrowing, females may exhibit the following characteristics: Milk appears in teats Nervousness Restlessness Attempt to make a bed out of dried vegetation
It is recommended that farmers be present to assist the female and young pigs during farrowing. Farmers should always wash and disinfect their hands before handling newborn pigs.
For newborn pigs the following management practices are advised: Continue to maintain the cleanliness of the pigpen. Manure and other wastes should be removed daily. Administer vitamin and iron injection within the first week as recommended. Select young males may be castrated between the age of 1-3 weeks. If more piglets are born than the mother can adequately nurse, begin bottle feeding a determined number of piglets with an appropriate milk replacement according to directions. These piglets must be raised separately from the other young pigs that the mother will continue to nurse. A warm place, such as a box with straw, and if possible, a heat lamp, will be needed to keep artificially nursed piglets warm, especially during the cold season.
Piglets should be weaned between the ages of 4-6 weeks of age. When only one week old, the piglets should be introduced to mixed feeds, ideally separately from the sow. To prevent iron deficiency (anemia) in small pigs between the ages of 2 to 4 weeks, it is recommended to occasionally add a shovel-full of soil into the pen. To minimize the chance of infecting pigs with parasites and diseases, be sure to obtain soil from sites not inhabited by other pigs. A daily supply of fresh greens would also be helpful. After weaning, it will be very important to feed appropriate amounts of mixed, cooked or dry feeds to young pigs separately from larger, more aggressive pigs. Also, water should be available to pigs at all times.
Upon weaning her young, depending on the health and condition of the sow, a female pig can typically be rebred anytime from 1 week to 1 month or more after weaning.
Record Keeping Farmers are very busy with numerous chores and duties and often do not have time for extra work. However, to better manage backyard pig production and potentially increase the returns from the pig operation, it is recommended that farmers keep a few basic records.
If known, record the birth date of each breeding pig Record the date that each sow was bred and calculate the expected farrowing date as well. For each litter, record the number of pigs born alive, dead and the number of male and female pigs born as well. Record the birth date of each litter of piglets to better manage the timing vaccination program and the administering of other medicines and supplements for the young pigs. Record the dates of administering vaccines, medications for internal parasites as well as other medicines and supplements. To check the efficiency of the backyard pig production system, record the cost of feeds, medicines, pig pen building materials and equipment over a year and compare against the income received from raising pigs over that time period. Record the types and amounts of feeds being used over different periods of time and compare the growth and performance of pigs with the variation in feeding.
Conclusion Given adequate housing, feeding and health care in combination with good herd management related to the breeding of pigs, backyard pig production in the Golden Triangle region can boost household incomes as well as meat for the family.
For more information about backyard pig production, contact the:
Upland Holistic Development Project P.O. Box 43 Fang 50110, Chiang Mai Thailand Tel: 053-473-221 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org web site: www.uhdp.org
References Cited: Eusebio, J.A., 1980. Pig Production in the Tropics. Intermediate Tropical Agriculture Series. Longman Group Limited. Essex, England.
Goodman, D.E. 1994. Raising Healthy Pigs Under Primitive Conditions. Third Edition (Revised). Christian Veterinary Missions-World Concern. Seattle, Washingon.
Holness, David H. Pigs. 1991. The Tropical Agriculturist. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation, Wageningen, The Netherlands and Macmillan Education LTD, London.
Muys, D, Westenbrink, G and Meinderts, J. 1996. Pig Husbandry in the Tropics, Agrodok-series No. 4., Agromisa, Wageningen, The Netherlands.