ECHOcommunity Conversations

Plant Composition Data Requests

Hi AN&H ECHOcommunity members,

I am looking for plant composition data for malanga (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). It is foraged and grown in gardens of a community I’m doing a research project with. I have taro root and leaf data (Colocasia esculenta), but I’m having trouble finding malanga (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). I’d prefer to differentiate the plants, if the data is possible to locate.

I’ve looked through USDA’s FoodData Central, ESHA data, and UN INFOODS. Do any of you have thoughts, leads, or suggestions?

Thanks so much for your help.

Rebecca Garofano

Hi Rebecca. Here is a screenshot from Food Plants International. Fyi- EC has selected FPI data sheets available in an FPI collection currently, but more FPI data will be available in ECHOcommunity in the future in a more complete form. I will add a Malanga FPI data sheet to EC later today to provide easy access to the list of references.

Plant fact sheet : Xanthosoma sagittifolium |

The FPI list of references for this plant is extensive. I did not take time to identify the source of the composition data FPI lists.

Abbiw, D.K., 1990, Useful Plants of Ghana. West African uses of wild and cultivated plants. Intermediate Technology Publications and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. p 27 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa)

Achigan-Dako, E, et al (Eds), 2009, Catalogue of Traditional Vegetables in Benin. International Foundation for Science. (As Xanthosoma mafaffa)

Ambasta, S.P. (Ed.), 2000, The Useful Plants of India. CSIR India. p 693 (Also as Xanthosoma nigrum)

Anderson, E. F., 1993, Plants and people of the Golden Triangle. Dioscorides Press. p 224 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Ara, R. I. T., 2015, Leafy Vegetables in Bangladesh. Photon eBooks. p 30 (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Asprilla-Perea, J., & Diaz-Puente, J.M., 2018, Traditional use of wild edible food in rural territories within tropical forest zones: A case study from the northwestern Colombia. New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences [Online]. 5(1), 162–181.

Barrau, J., 1976, Subsistence Agriculture in Polynesia and Micronesia. Bernice P. Bishop Museu, Bulletin 223 Honolulu Hawaii. Kraus reprint. p 39 (As Xanthosoma violaceum) and (Also as Xanthosoma violaceum) and p 42 (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Bennett, B. C., 1990, Useful Plants of Amazonian Ecuador. US Agency for International Development. Fifth Progress Report. New York Botanical Gardens. p 40 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Borrell, O.W., 1989, An Annotated Checklist of the Flora of Kairiru Island, New Guinea. Marcellin College, Victoria Australia. p 17

Bourret, D., 1981, Bonnes-Plantes de Nouvelle-Caledonie et des Loyaute. ORSTOM. p 61

Brickell, C. (Ed.), 1999, The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Convent Garden Books. p 1065 (Also as Xanthosoma violaceum)

Brown, D., 2000, Aroids. Plants of the Arum family. Timber Press. (Second edition) p 258 (As Xanthosoma nigrum)and p 261 (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Burkill, H. M., 1985, The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vol. 1. Kew.

Burkill, I.H., 1966, A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol 2 (I-Z) p 2312 (Also as Xanthosoma violaceum)

Call, C. A., et al, 2004, Participatory Rural Appraisal in the Upland Ecosystem of Mt Malindang, Misamis Occidental, Philippines. Biodiversity Research Programme for Development in Mindanao.

Chizmar Fernandez, C., et al, 2009, Plantas comestibles de Centroamerica. Instituto de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica. p 63

Chowdery, T., et al, 2014, Wild edible plants of Uttar Dinajpur District, West Bengal. Life Science Leaflets. 47:pp 20-36

Chowdhury, M. & Mukherjee, R., 2012, Wild Edible Plants Consumed by Local Communities of Maldah of West Bengal, India. Indian J.Sci.Res.3(2) : 163-170

Cobley, L.S. (rev. Steele, W.M.) 2nd Ed., 1976, An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. Longmans. p 126

Coe, F. G. and Anderson, G. J., 1999, Ethnobotany of the Sumu (Ulwa) of Southeastern Nicaragua and Comparisons with Miskitu Plant Lore. Economic Botany Vol. 53. No. 4. pp. 363-386

de Polle, E., Plantas Silvestres Comestible de Guatemala. 1(1) Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Englberger, L., et al, 2006, Documentation of the traditional food system of Pohnpei. Indigenous People’s food systems. Chp 6 p 119

Facciola, S., 1998, Cornucopia 2: a Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, p 25 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa) and p 25 (As Xanthosoma violaceum) and (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

FAO, 1993, Valor Nutritivo Y Usis en Alimantacion humana de Algunis Cultivos Autoctonos Subexplotados de Mesoamerica. FAO, Santiago, Chile. p 78

Flora of Australia Volume 49, Oceanic Islands 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. (1994) p 417

Foo, J.T.S.(ed), 1996, A Guide to Common Vegetables. Singapore Science Foundation. p 16

Franklin, J., Keppel, G., & Whistler, W., 2008, The vegetation and flora of Lakeba, Nayau and Aiwa Islands, Central Lau Group, Fiji. Micronesica 40(1/2): 169–225, 2008

French, B.R., 1986, Food Plants of Papua New Guinea, A Compendium. Asia Pacific Science Foundation p 4

French, B.R., 2010, Food Plants of Solomon Islands. A Compendium. Food Plants International Inc. p 10

Gangte, H. E., et al, 2013, Wild Edible Plants used by the Zou Tribe in Manipur, India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 5

Giraldi, M. & Hanazaki, N., 2014, Use of Cultivated and Harvested Edible Plants by Caiçaras—What Can Ethnobotany Add to Food Security Discussions? Human Ecology Review, Volume 20, Number 2, 2014

Grubben, G. J. H. and Denton, O. A. (eds), 2004, Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands. p 566

Guite, C., 2016, Study of wild edible plants associated with the Paite Tribe of Manipur, India. International Journal of Current Research. Vol. 8, Issue 11, pp. 40927-40932

Harkonen, M. & Vainio-Mattila, K., 1998, Some examples of Natural Products in the Eastern Arc Mountains. Journal of East African Natural History 87:265-278

Hedrick, U.P., 1919, (Ed.), Sturtevant’s edible plants of the world. p 689

Henty, E.E., 1980, Harmful Plants in Papua New Guinea. Botany Bulletin No 12. Division Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. p 23

Hermandez Bermejo, J.E., and Leon, J. (Eds.), 1994, Neglected Crops. 1492 from a different perspective. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No 26. FAO, Rome. p18, 253, p 215 (As Xanthosoma violaceum), p 254 (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Hibbert, M., 2002, The Aussie Plant Finder 2002, Florilegium. p 310 (Also as Xanthosoma violaceum)

Hossain, U. & Rahman, A., 2018, Study and quantitative analysis of wild vegetable floral diversity available in Barisal district, Bangladesh. Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2018, 4 (4), 362-371 (Also as Xanthosoma atrovirens) (As Xanthosoma nigrum)

Hunter, D., et al, 2019, The potential of neglected and underutilized species for improving diets and nutrition. Planta (2019) 250:709-729

Index sem. hort. berol. app. 3. 1854 (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Jardin, C., 1970, List of Foods Used In Africa, FAO Nutrition Information Document Series No 2.p 21, 111 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa) and p 21 (As Xanthosoma violaceum) and (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Katz, E., et al, 2012, No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon. Acta Soc Bot Pol 81(4):283–293

Kay, D.E., 1973, Root Crops, Digest 2, Tropical Products Institute, London, p 160 (Also as Xanthosoma violaceum) and (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Kays, S. J., and Dias, J. C. S., 1995, Common Names of Commercially Cultivated Vegetables of the World in 15 languages. Economic Botany, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 115-152

Kebebew, M. & Leta, G., 2016, Wild Edible Plant Bio-diversity and Utilization System in Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management 2016, 7(4):885-896

Kiple, K.F. & Ornelas, K.C., (eds), 2000, The Cambridge World History of Food. CUP p 1807 (Also as Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Kumar, S. A., Manus, D. & Mallika, M., 2018, Impact of non-timber forest products on Forest and in Livelihood Economy of the People of Adjoining Areas of Jalpaiguri Forest Division, West Bengal, India. Int. J. of Life Sciences, 2018; 6 (2):365-385

Latham, P., 2004, Useful Plants of Bas-Congo province. Salvation Army & DFID p 294

Lembaga Biologi Nasional, 1977, Ubi-Ubian, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta. p 48 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Lentz, D. L., 1993, Medicinal and Other Economic Plants of the Paya of Honduras. Economic Botany, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 358-370 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Lim, T. K., 2015, Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants. Volume 9, Modified Stems, Roots, Bulbs. Springer p 86

Llamas, K.A., 2003, Tropical Flowering Plants. Timber Press. p 87 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa)

Macmillan, H.F. (Revised Barlow, H.S., et al) 1991, Tropical Planting and Gardening. Sixth edition. Malayan Nature Society. Kuala Lumpur. p 342

Martin, F.W. & Ruberte, R.M., 1979, Edible Leaves of the Tropics. Antillian College Press, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. p 21 and p 176 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa), p 176 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Massal, E and Barrau, J., 1973, Food Plants of the South Sea Islands. SPC Technical Paper No 94. Nounea, New Caledonia. p 6-10

Medhi, P. & Borthakur, S. K., 2012, Phytoresources from North Cachur Hills of Assam -3: Edible plants sold at Hflong market. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 3(1) pp 84-109

Miguel, E., et al, 1989, A checklist of the cultivated plants of Cuba. Kulturpflanze 37. 1989, 211-357

Moerman, D. F., 2010, Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press. p 602 (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Nyadanu, D., et al, 2015, Agro-biodiversity and challenges of on-farm conservation: the case of plant genetic resources of neglected and underutilized crop species in Ghana. Genet. Resourc. Crop Evol. 62(7):

Ochse, J.J. et al, 1931, Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. Asher reprint. p 60 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3:370. 1853 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Onwueme, I.C., 1978, The Tropical Tuber Crops. Wiley, p 199

Oomen, H.A.P.C., & Grubben, G.J.H., 1978, Tropical Leaf Vegetables in Human Nutrition, Communication 69, Department of Agricultural research, RTI Amsterdam, p 66, 81

Pawera, L., et al, 2020, Wild Food Plants and Trends in Their Use: From Knowledge and Perceptions to Drivers of Change in West Sumatra, Indonesia, Foods. 2020, 9, 1240

Pena, F. B., et al, 1998, Los quelites de la Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico: Inventory Y Formas de Preparacion. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mexico 62:49-62 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Plants of Haiti Smithsonian Institute

Plucknett, D.L., Edible Aroids, in Simmonds, N.W., (Ed.), 1979, Evolution of Crop Plants. Longman. p 10

Purseglove, J.W., 1972, Tropical Crops. Monocotyledons. Longmans p 69, p 70 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa) and p 69 (As Xanthosoma violaceum) and (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Raponda-Walker, A & Sillans, R., 1961, Les Plantes Utiles du Gabon. Editions Paul Lechevalier, Paris. p 97 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Recher, P, 2001, Fruit Spirit Botanical Gardens Plant Index. seedlist.html p 3

Schneider, E., 2001, Vegetables from Amaranth to Zucchini: The essential reference. HarperCollins. p 722

H. Schott & S. L. Endlicher, Melet. bot. 19. 1832 (“sagittaefolium”)

Segnon, A. C. & Achigan-Dako, E. G., 2014, Comparative analysis of diversity and utilization of edible plants in arid and semi-arid areas in Benin. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2014, 10:80

Sharma, B.B., 2005, Growing fruits and vegetables. Publications Division. Ministry of Information and broadcasting. India. p 237

Sillitoe, P. 1995, An Ethnobotanical Account of the Plant Resources of the Wola Region, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. J. Ethnobiol. 15(2): 201-235

Slocum, P.D. & Robinson, P., 1999, Water Gardening. Water Lilies and Lotuses. Timber Press. p 103 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Small, E., 2009, Top 100 Food Plants. The world’s most important culinary crops. NRC Research Press. p 335

Staples, G.W. and Herbst, D.R., 2005, A tropical Garden Flora. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. p 613 (Drawing) (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Stephens, K.M., & Dowling, R.M., 2002, Wetland Plants of Queensland. A field guide. CSIRO p 9 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Stone, B. C., 1970, The Flora of Guam. A Manual for the Identification of the Vascular Plants of the Island. Micronesica. Journal of the University of Guam. p 120

Sukarya, D. G., (Ed.) 2013, 3,500 Plant Species of the Botanic Gardens of Indonesia. LIPI p 1141, 1142 (Also as Xanthosoma nigrum)

Sukenti, K., et al, 2016, Ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of the Sasak tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic Foods. 3 (2016) 189-200 p 198 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Tanaka, (As Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Termote, C., et al, 2011, Eating from the wild: Turumbu, Mbole and Bali traditional knowledge of non-cultivated edible plants, District Tshopo, DRCongo, Gen Resourc Crop Evol. 58:585-618

Termote, C., 2012, Wild edible plant use in Tshopo District, Democratic Republic of Congo. Universiteit Gent. p 69

Terra, G.J.A., 1973, Tropical Vegetables. Communication 54e Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, p 82 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa), p 21, 22, 82 (As Xanthosoma violaceum)

Thaman, R.R., 1976, The Tongan Agricultural System, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. p 430

Thaman, R. R., 1987, Plants of Kiribati: A listing and analysis of vernacular names. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 296

Thaman, R. R., et al, 1994, The Flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 392. Smithsonian Institute p 42

Thaman, R. R, 2016, The flora of Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 611. Smithsonian Institute p 41

Tindall, H.D., 1983, Vegetables in the tropics. Macmillan p. 58

Trimanto, & Hapsari L., 2016, Botanical survey in thirteen montane forests of Bawean Island Nature Reserve, East Java Indonesia: Conservation status, bioprospecting and potential tourism. Biodiversitas 17: 832-846.

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: (10 April 2000) (Also as Xanthosoma violaceum)

Vainio-Mattila, K., 2000, Wild vegetables used by the Sambaa in the Usumbara Mountains, NE Tanzania. Ann. Bot. Fennici 37:57-67

Vander Velde, N, 2003, The Vascular Plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Atoll research Bulletin. No. 503. Smithsonian Institute. p 31

van Wyk, B., 2005, Food Plants of the World. An illustrated guide. Timber press. p 386 (Also as Xanthosoma atrovirens)

Villachica, H., (Ed.), 1996, Frutales Y hortalizas promisorios de la Amazonia. FAO, Lima. p 341

Vickery, M.L. and Vickery, B., 1979, Plant Products of Tropical Africa, Macmillan. p 18

Wallace, P. A., Marfo, E. K., and Plahar, W. A., 1998, Nutritional quality and antinutritional composition of four non-conventional leafy vegetables. Food Chemistry 61(3) 287-291 (As Xanthosoma mafaffa)

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Whistler, W. A., 1988, Ethnobotany of Tokelau: The Plants, Their Tokelau Names, and Their Uses. Economic Botany 42(2): 155-176

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Chácobo in Beni, Bolivia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2017) 13:57

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Amazing - I should have thought to look at FPI first, as well. Thank you so much for a thorough and detailed response, Steve! This is very helpful for malanga and other species.