Small Animal The purpose of this resource list is to help Third World families alleviate hunger and poverty by improving small-animal production. Livestock In countries experiencing intense population pressure, there is seldom enough land for pasture or for crops grown specifically for livestock. In many instances they are fed the locally available agricultural by-products and scavenged mature forage, which are usually deficient in minerals, energy and protein. Animals in these situations are not primarily producers but rather serve many purposes: insurance, mobile capital, a source of fuel, traction, a fertilizer factory, and status symbols. Unsophisticated but scientifically based research has been carried out in developing countries, primarily on farms, over the past few decades seeking to optimize the production of such animals from local resources. Aquaculture (Fish and Related) Fish farming can generate high interest and excitement. It has great potential to produce high quality protein in relatively short time periods and in small areas. Fish farming is one way that resource poor farmers throughout the world can provide protein that is often lacking in the family diet and too expensive to purchase. Insects for Food and Feed Insects are an often-overlooked food and feed source. In many areas of the world, they have been eaten for centuries. In 1885, Vincent M. Holt wrote a document called “Why Not Eat Insects?” in which he described historical instances of people who ate insects and considered them a great delicacy. Worldwide, more than 1900 insect species have been used as food (van Huis et al. 2013). Of these, beetles (mostly larvae) make up 31%; caterpillars of butterflies and moths make up 18%; larvae and pupae of bees, wasps, and ants make up 14%; and grasshoppers, locusts and crickets make up 13% (van Huis et al. 2013). Poultry Domesticated food producing animals in the world outnumber the human population, two to one. There are thousands of animal species in the world, yet, only a few have been successfully domesticated on a permanent basis and none within the last 2000 years. In fact, five species (cattle, sheep, goats, chickens, and pigs) comprise over 95% of the world's farm animals and all five1 are found in the humid lowland tropics. Of all traditional smallscale animals in the tropics, however, chickens are by far the most common --- as indeed they are worldwide.