Biochar Biochar is the carbonaceous solid product of biomass pyrolysis which can be used as chemical feedstock for various purposes such as energy production, and adsorption of pollutants. In particular, application of biochar to the soil is gaining greater interests, which can reduce fertilizer consumption, increase crop yields, and sequestrate carbon. Construction The need for shelter is a fundamental necessity. Adequate planning, design and construction methods are key. Matters to consider include optimum use of local labour, using locally produced building materials, and construction techniques that are affordable, manageable and of best interest to the local community. Digital Toolbox The Digital Opportunity - USAID - Like railways and roads before it, the internet is unleashing waves of innovation and transforming the way in which businesses, consumers, and governments operate and interact with each other. The rapid growth in mobile phone ownership and mobile broadband usage is serving only to accelerate this digital revolution. Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Clean water, basic toilets and good hygiene practices are essential for the survival and development of children. Today, there are around 2.4 billion people who do not use improved sanitation, and 663 million who do not have access to improved water... Creative Capacity Building Creative Capacity Building suggests that the underlying principles of co-creation and crowd-sourcing-- typically applied to computer software development, corporate management, or high-end product design --can also be relevant to technology innovations aimed at ending poverty. This is only possible when the conditions exist for full participation in the entire design process by the people for whom these technologies are intended, which means investing in strategies that increase local capacity and support local innovation. — MIT Biogas "Anaerobic digestion, or biodigestion, involves the microbial degradation of organic materials in an oxygen-free environment. Feedstocks for anaerobic digestion include livestock manures, crop residues, culled fruit and vegetables, food waste, and other organic by-products. The process produces renewable energy in the form of biogas (which is mostly methane) and a nutrient-rich digestate that can be used as a biofertilizer instead of commercial fertilizers." Post Harvest Effective management during the postharvest period, rather than the level of sophistication of any given technology, is the key in reaching the desired objectives. While large scale operations may benefit from investing in costly handling machinery and high-tech postharvest treatments, often these options are not practical for small-scale handlers. Instead, simple, low cost technologies often can be more appropriate for small volume, limited resource commercial operations, farmers involved in direct marketing, as well as for suppliers to exporters in developing countries. Food Processing and Preservation The causes of food losses and waste in low-income countries are mainly connected to financial, managerial and technical limitations in harvesting techniques, storage and cooling facilities in difficult climatic conditions, infrastructure, packaging and marketing systems. Given that many smallholder farmers in developing countries live on the margins of food insecurity, a reduction in food losses could have an immediate and significant impact on their livelihoods.